Stem cell therapy for diabetes essay

Most people who live with type 2 diabetes for a period of time will eventually require insulin to survive. Economic costs of diabetes in the U.

Diabetes Type 2 - Stem cells treatment clinic

Moreover, the isolation process for islets damages the transplantable tissue; as such, 2—3 donors are required to obtain the minimal b-cell mass sufficient for transplantation into a single recipient.

New strategies for inducing pancreatic islet cell growth may emerge from knowledge of how liver cells develop from progenitor cells during early development such that the resulting adult organ retains substantial regenerative capacity.

National diabetes fact sheet: Even if the regenerative properties of the pancreas remain functional, the continued presence of these T-cells effectively counteracts any endogenous repair and would likely decimate populations of newly-regenerated or transplanted insulin-producing cells.

The condition occurs as a result of the body being unable to produce enough of the hormone insulin or use it effectively.

Additionally, the choice of marker can select for certain stem cell populations while possibly excluding others. As an additional source of information, an extensive discussion of research challenges and strategies for achieving the goal of cell replacement therapy for Type 1 diabetes is presented in Advances and Emerging Opportunities in Type 1 Diabetes Research: Encircled is the beta cell that synthesizes and secretes insulin.

Clinical outcomes and insulin secretion after islet transplantation with the Edmonton protocol. Global burden of diabetes, For example, several advances have recently been made from studies of pregnancy and pregnancy-related diabetes gestational diabetes in mice.

Although projections for increases in diabetes prevalence suggest that the greatest percentage gains will occur in Asia and South America, 23 all nations will experience a rising disease burden. Plasticity of adult stem cells. Further research to elucidate conditions under which b-cells can proliferate may help to develop new therapeutic approaches.

Cell replacement therapy is one of many research avenues being pursued as a potential treatment strategy for type 1 diabetes. Kieffer and colleagues note, however, that such treatments can cause gastrointestinal problems, weight gain and low blood glucose levels, and some patients may not even respond to them.

The strategy would also benefit those with type 2 diabetes to a lesser extent by replacing failing b-cells, although the insulin resistance in peripheral tissues would remain present.

Jennifer Bruin, University of British Columbia Senior study author Timothy Kieffer, of the University of British Columbia in Canada, and colleagues say the findings could lead the way for the first ever stem cell-based insulin replacement therapy being tested in humans with type 2 diabetes.

Stem cell-based therapy for type 2 diabetes shows promise

In order to manage blood glucose levels, patients with type 2 diabetes are often treated with oral medication - such as metformin - insulin injections, or a combination of both.

When the b-cells fail to produce enough insulin to meet regulatory needs, however, the blood glucose concentration rises. Second, protocols to grow and expand mature b-cells in culture have met with technical challenges. By contrast, type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that results from a decline in b-cell function combined with insulin resistance, or the inability to use insulin effectively in peripheral tissues such as the liver, muscles, and fat.

Debate continues on the identification of the "pancreatic stem cell," and at present it is difficult to ascertain which cell type has the greatest potential for diabetes therapy. ES cells, which are pluripotent cell lines they can give rise to all cell types of the embryo that can be induced to develop into various lineages based on culture conditions, may therefore represent a future option for b-cell regeneration.

However, the genes used for reprogramming were introduced into the cells using a virus-based method, which could have adverse clinical effects. Whether b-cell progenitors are present in the adult pancreas is a controversial topic in diabetes research.

Diabetes is a devastating disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Contingent upon the development of appropriate protocols, stem cells could theoretically be used to treat diabetes through two approaches.

As such, stem cell therapy would directly benefit persons with type 1 diabetes by replenishing b-cells that are destroyed by autoimmune processes, although it would still be necessary to mitigate the autoimmune destruction of b-cells. References International Diabetes Federation.

However, the autoimmune response has been successfully averted in non-obese diabetic mice either by using anti-T-cell antibodies to eliminate the majority of the autoreactive cells 50 or by transplanting bone marrow from a diabetes-resistant donor with a sublethal dose of irradiation into the diabetic animal.

Beta-cell neogenesis during prolonged hyperglycemia in rats. Islet transplantation in seven patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen.

However, it should be noted that directed differentiation of ES cells toward the b-cell has not been reported. The highest standards of treatment and investigative research are upheld at all times.

Stem cell science has seen considerable advancements in the last few years with many new developments and discoveries being made. Clinical Challenges Clearly, using stem cells to treat diabetes will require additional knowledge, both in the laboratory and in the clinic.

Favorably tipping the balance between cytopathic and regulatory T cells to create transplantation tolerance. Based on several recent discoveries, however, researchers have begun to ask if a new treatment approach is on the horizon — can stem cells that are derived from adult or embryonic tissues generate new pancreatic b-cells to replace those that have failed or been destroyed?The Stem Cells Technology In Diabetes Therapy Biology Essay.

Biotechnology Program School of chemestry & molecular biosciencesEmerging Biotechnologies. Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes It has been suggested that stem cell therapy is the answer to treating many patients greatly improving their quality of life.

[tags: Multicellular Organisms, Stem Cell Therapy] In this essay, I will explain embryonic stem cells concept, and importance of utilizing it in medical development.

Moreover, I. A new stem cell-based treatment for type 2 diabetes has proved effective in mice, improving glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and leading to rapid weight loss.

Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes Essay Words | 5 Pages. Diabetes, or fully named Diabetes Mellitus is when a person has high blood sugar and that is cause by the lack of insulin produced by the pancreas or it is when the cells do not respond to the insulin produced, it is also according to the type of diabetes that the cause may be different.

Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes Type 2 in Swiss Medica Clinic. Swiss Medica Clinic has developed the Adult Autologous Stem Cell Therapy program to treat a variety of conditions.

During stem cell treatment a patient receives – million stem cells. The quantity of restored cells not only covers daily losses, but exceeds them a. Type 1 diabetes is an appropriate candidate disease for stem cell therapy, as the causative damage is localized to a particular cell type. In theory, stem cells that can differentiate into b-cells in response to molecular signals in the local pancreatic environment could be introduced into the body, where they would migrate to the .

Stem cell therapy for diabetes essay
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